Stone parquet is a high value product in stone and is widely used in architectural decoration. The mosaic products have flat mosaic, three-dimensional mosaic, embossed mosaic, arc-plate mosaic, solid-column mosaic, mosaic mosaic, and these mosaic products have their own characteristics, so the processing technology is different.
1. According to the geometric shape of the mosaic: rectangular, square mosaic; round mosaic, oval mosaic; fan-shaped mosaic; regular polygon mosaic.
2. According to the installation area: lobby mosaic; room mosaic; lounge, cafe, piano bar parquet; living room, restaurant mosaic; porch parquet; bathroom mosaic; stairs and stepping.
3. According to the processing materials: marble mosaic, granite mosaic, artificial stone mosaic, mixed material mosaic.
Mixed material mosaic: A mosaic that is processed by different materials. There are marble + granite mosaic, marble + artificial stone mosaic, artificial granite + artificial quartz stone mosaic, marble + metal parquet, marble + tile mosaic, marble + shell.
4. According to the processing difficulty:
Difficult parquet: complex patterns and difficult processing.
Medium difficulty parquet: The pattern is more complicated, and the processing technique is more difficult.
General difficulty parquet: The pattern is not complicated, and the processing technique is not difficult.
Simple difficulty mosaic: simple pattern, simple processing and mosaic.
5. According to processing equipment and process:
Hand-made parquet: a mosaic that is purely processed by hand-cutting.
Waterjet machine parquet: Cut the parquet fittings from the waterjet machine, and make the mosaic by hand.
Curve machine parquet: Cut the mosaic accessories by the curve cutter, and make the mosaic by hand.
Single-cutting machine or bridge-cutting machine parquet: cutting parquet fittings by single cutting machine or bridge cutting machine, artificially processed parquet.
6. According to the surface of the mosaic
Mirror mosaic: The surface of the mosaic has been mirror-finished, and the luminosity is higher than 90°.
Glossy parquet: parquet with a luminosity of more than 80°.
Matte surface mosaic: parquet with a luminosity of less than 60°.
Resin surface mosaic: The surface has been treated with a resin surface, which is covered with a layer of resin.
Rough mosaic: The surface of the mosaic is smooth, rough, burned, or axe, or pickled, or steel brush, or sandblasted, or water-punched, or slate processed.
7. According to the processing technology: seamless processing technology parquet, seam processing technology parquet, waterjet machine parquet, hand-stitching.
8. By product:
Arc plate mosaic: The mosaic processed on the circular plate.
Mosaic Mosaic: Mosaic processing of mosaic processing
Three-dimensional mosaic: three-dimensional mosaic, a mosaic that changes in the vertical direction of the surface of the sheet.
Plate mosaic: The parquet processed with the plate has a flat, three-dimensional mosaic.
Solid column mosaic: processing the parquet on a solid column.
Molding: The width is less than 300, which is used for the mosaic of wave lines.
Embossed parquet: A type of three-dimensional mosaic that has a relief effect.
Mosaic product category
According to the various uses of the mosaic products, the mosaic products can be divided into the following categories.
Ground parquet: A large number of parquets are used for floor decoration, such as hotel lobby floors, shopping mall floors, hotel floors, bathroom floors, presidential suite floors, home living room floors, elevator cars and elevator halls.
Wall mosaic: mostly used for wall coverings, living rooms, hotel lobby, hotels, presidential suites, etc. The most popular wall mosaic application is mosaic mosaic, especially in Europe and the United States.
Desktop, various furniture countertops: improve the decorative grade of furniture, art appreciation, make furniture countertops become high-end decorations and artworks.
Arc plate mosaic: The new product in the parquet, the application volume is expanding, and the scope of use is wider and wider.
Solid column mosaic: making a mosaic on the surface of a solid column, adding the connotation of the column product, so that the column is free from monotony and boring. Solid column mosaics have solid square columns, cylindrical mosaics, regular polygonal column mosaics, and so on.
Embossed parquet: embossed parquet is a high-end art in stone products, integrating the art of mosaic and the art of embossing, so that the embossed mosaic has both artistic charm.
Parquet fireplace: Make the door sills and legs of the fireplace into a mosaic. The parquet fireplace breaks through the traditional fireplace style, further adding to the artistic elegance of the fireplace.
Parquet furniture: making various kinds of parquet on the furniture can not only improve the grade of the furniture, but also increase the ornamental of the furniture products, making the furniture a kind of art.
The parquet processing process varies depending on the type of parquet product.
Flat sheet metal processing technology:
Material selection→Unloading→Coloring, trialping→bonding→reinforcing, paving, paving, sanding→setting thickness→grinding polishing→plate, inspection, assembly, numbering→surface treatment→final inspection→packaging, Library.
1. The choice of parquet
The selection of the mosaic is the most important part of the parquet production. The quality of the selection determines the quality, effect, artistry and value of the mosaic. Generally, it is required to select a stone with fine crystal grains, clear and uniform texture, substantially uniform color, and no cracks.
Specific requirements for material selection:
1 color requirement
A set of mosaics of the same material must be the same color, but for some materials, such as Spanish beige, old beige, coral red, Jinnianhua and other marbles, the same board itself has color difference, then adopt the principle of color gradually transition , premised on the aesthetic decorative effect that does not affect the mosaic. Before the parquet is cut, according to the mosaic pattern, the selected materials are carefully calculated to ensure that the selected materials are sufficient for processing the same set of mosaics, and the same set of mosaic colors are completely or substantially identical.
2 texture requirements
The direction of the texture in the processing of the mosaic depends on the specific situation, there is no absolute standard to refer to. In the case of a circular mosaic, the texture can be in the circumferential direction or in the radial direction. Whether it is in the circumferential direction or in the radial direction, the consistency of the lines must be ensured. In the case of a square mosaic, the texture can be radiated along the length direction, or radiated in the width direction, or simultaneously radiated along the length and width directions to form a back-shaped pattern mosaic. Some high-grade, special materials
When processing parquet, it must be traced, such as snow white, green jade, orange jade and other chaotic materials; straight grain materials have similar requirements, such as Roman travertine, coffee travertine, Sofitel gold and so on.
3 stone defects
Color lines, stains, cracks, holes, sand holes, and mildew are common defects in stone. Often, small defects may have a great impact on the quality and decorative effect of the whole set of flowers.
In terms of the quality of the parquet, these stone defects are absolutely not allowed. Therefore, the material should be avoided as much as possible. In case of unavoidable, the repair and excavation methods can be used to eliminate the defects, but the surface of the stone after the repair cannot affect the decorative effect of the mosaic.
The travertine material should be used with caution when processing the mosaic, because if the surface hole is not treated to be non-cavity, it will be used in places with large flow of people, and the dirt will penetrate the stone and will greatly affect the quality of the mosaic.
The basic procedures for waterjet cutting are as follows:
1 computer drawing, programming process;
2 Transfer the program to the waterjet machine;
3 Simulate and check the correctness of the machining program, debug and modify the process parameters;
4 Place the stone to be processed correctly on the processing table of the waterjet machine;
5 Set the machining zero point of the water jet machine according to the size of the workpiece processed by the mosaic;
6 Check whether water, electricity, gas and garnet sand are normal;
7 Start the water jet machine, adjust the water jet size of the water jet machine, and observe the processing process;
8 After processing, the processed mosaic components are numbered according to the requirements of the splicing.
The matching of the mosaic materials can refer to the following basic principles:
The material hardness is the same or similar or the same type of material is matched with the principle; the lines are basically the same principle, both rhythm and change, false and real match; color depth and light matching principle, the color of the same set of flowers should have a shade change, only the makeup is light Matching, the mosaic has a sense of beauty; the texture is matched with "return", "following", "shun", "horizon".
2. Parquet cutting
According to the characteristics of the mosaic, there are manual cutting, single-arm hand-cutting machine cutting, water-jet cutting machine cutting, curve cutting machine cutting, and bridge cutting machine cutting. Among them, the water knife cutting machine is the most convenient and most efficient cutting method among all the cutting methods, and is widely used in the processing of cutting and parquet of stone shaped products. However, waterjet equipment is more expensive and has higher maintenance techniques.
Waterjet cutting has the advantage that other cutting methods can't match. After the CAD drawing is drawn by the drawing software dedicated to the water jet machine, the computer automatically arranges the mosaic components in an optimal manner, automatically generates a machining program, and then transmits the program to the water jet machine through the computer.
For the processing of parquet without the waterjet machine, the curve cutting machine can be used for cutting. The curve cutting machine is cheap, the processing cost is low, and the equipment site is small. However, due to the limitations of the equipment, the curve of the curved cutting machine is difficult to process or needs to be processed in multiple stages, which increases the seam of the mosaic, and the processing quality and effect are poor.
The single-arm hand-cutting machine and the bridge-cutting machine can only cut the straight-line piece of material. In the case of the lower straight type of the piece, it is difficult to cut according to the pattern, and it is possible to cut it according to the template. The single-arm hand-cutting machine and the bridge-cutting machine have higher efficiency than the water-jetting machine, and the material under the cutting machine has no burrs and does not need to be ground.
3. Mosaic coloring, try to fight
Before the mosaic bonding, it is necessary to color the cut pieces to ensure the consistency of the color and texture of the whole set. Adjust the color of the pieces, according to the requirements of the mosaic assembly drawing number, to prevent mixing when mixing and affect the quality of the whole set of parquet.
The trial is to assemble the assembled components according to the drawings. The process of trial-and-match is actually a process of correcting the processing of the mosaic components, correcting the burrs of the workpieces processed by the waterjet machine, and grinding. The method of assembling is better with the light facing up, because it can be seen that the seams are good after assembly.
Trying to fight from the parquet production center to the outside, layer by layer and gradually splicing outwards, while grinding and grinding the two pieces of the components in the water grinder, when the joints of the two or two parts are less than 0.5mm, the fight When the two pieces are completely matched, the trial is basically completed.
4. Mosaic bonding and reinforcement
The mosaic is made of seam bonding and seamless bonding. There is a gap of 1~3mm between the joints and the joints; the gap between the joints is less than 1mm. After the mosaic is tried, the pieces should be spliced and bonded. When bonding, the pieces are first adhered to each other with a small amount of adhesive, and then bonded with marble glue as a whole pattern. When bonding, the connection of the various size figures in the view is divided into several groups of bonds. Firstly, the center group 1 is ground and bonded, and then the parts 2, 3, 4... are respectively ground. Finally, it is the bonding between the group and the group, and the bonding of the whole and the frame.
There are two kinds of processing methods for the bonding of the mosaic, one is the face-up phase-adhesive method, and the other is the face-down method. Both methods have their own advantages and disadvantages. The mosaic face-up front-adhesive method can observe the seam of the surface while processing. When the seam is too large, it can be repaired and adjusted in time. However, the front-side sticking method of the mosaic may be inconsistent due to the thickness of the stone, and the thickening process is increased. When the net is reinforced, the sticky mosaic should be turned over, and the process of splicing the flowers may cause the unreinforced parquet to crack. When the mosaic is facing down, the gap between adjacent pieces is not visible, and there is a certain degree of blindness in the processing. If the mosaic is too large, the quality of the mosaic will be affected if the seam is too large. However, the method is very convenient for laying reinforcement, and can ensure that the surface of the mosaic is flat without thickening.
5. Adjust glue, joint
After the overall pattern of the mosaic is bonded, it is mixed with epoxy resin or unsaturated resin glue, colorant or color paste. After adjusting to the same color as the stone, add a small amount of drier in the glue, and quickly fill it into the gap of each joint of the piece before the glue is dry, and scrape off the surface glue before the glue is completely dry.
The color of the mosaic glue is lighter than the color of the board surface, and the depth will affect the quality of the parquet. However, the artificial stone mosaic is not the same as the natural stone mosaic at this point, and the glue joint between the mosaic pieces is specially adjusted to other colors, so that the mosaic surface has a layered feeling.
6. Reinforce, lay the net, spread the glue, and lift the sand
Patch reinforcement is an important means of ensuring that the pieces do not spread. When the pieces are bonded, the glue with the same color as the stone is evenly scraped on the side of the piece, and then the pieces are squeezed together, and the extruded glue is scraped off before it is dried.
After the assembly of the mosaic components and the seams are finished, the mosaic should be carefully turned over. Then, on the back of the mosaic, the hand-cutting machine at the joint of the pieces pulls the groove of 10 mm deep and the steel bars. The number of grooves depends on the bonding of the mosaic and the connection point after splicing. In principle, each connection point must have a steel bar connection. The diameter of the steel bar is 10mm and the length is not shorter than 100mm, but if the distance between adjacent pieces is If it is not very long, it can also be reinforced with a steel bar through the same joint. The strong metal glue is used in the steel trough, and the dry hanging glue is buried in the trough. After the steel is buried, a thick fiber mesh is laid on the back of the mosaic.
There is also a processing technology for the parquet bonding reinforcement, which does not need to add steel bars at the joints and strengthen the force net reinforcement. The bonding method is 撇15° at the back of the embossed piece, leaving no less than 5mm platform from the glossy surface, then splicing and bonding the glossy side down, adding dry glue or strong rubber at the splicing seam. After the dry glue or the strong rubber is cured, the bonded parquet component can be put away.
In order to prevent the empty installation of the parquet, some customers require sanding on the back of the mosaic. The so-called Yangsha is to scrape a layer of resin glue on the back of the mosaic, and then sprinkle a layer of soilless river sand.
7. The thickness of the mosaic
Since the plates used for processing the mosaic have different thicknesses, if the direct grinding by hand is used, the polishing and polishing flatness are different, and the polishing is difficult and the grinding is difficult. If you install a diamond grinding wheel on a hand grinder or use a disc thickening machine to flatten or flatten the surface of the parquet, it not only saves time for polishing and polishing, but also has a flat surface.
8. Parquet polishing
The gloss of the mosaic is an important technical indicator to measure the quality of the mosaic. The degree of gloss depends largely on the quality of the abrasive and the skill level of the operator. In the selection of abrasives, different abrasives should be selected according to different stone types and different grinding stages. The mosaic is made of marble. The marble is low in hardness and brittle. It is a medium-gloss product. It should be made of alumina soft abrasive.
Polishing and polishing must master several aspects in the operation technology:
1 Abrasive size and thickness should be consistent, can not carry sand and debris.
2 The pressure during operation should be moderate, the pressure is too high, the surface temperature is high, and the board is easy to burn; the pressure is small, the grinding time is long, and the gloss is difficult to increase. To control the water consumption, the water volume is too large, the plate surface temperature is lowered, the grinding time becomes longer; if the water volume is too small, the plate surface temperature is high, which will cause the stone plate to burst. The amount of water should match the pressure. The general pressure is 6kg/cm2 and the water temperature is kept at 10°C～50°C.
3 Master the grinding speed. When polishing and polishing with a fully automatic continuous mill, the speed of the conveyor belt should not be too fast, the running speed of the beam should not be too fast, and it should be moved evenly, and it should be flexibly controlled according to the hardness of the stone and the size of the grinding area.
4 hand-held grinding and polishing
Zhejiang KASARO New Decorative Material Co.,Ltd
Add：No.777 Hangmu Road, Jinhuo Village, Qianyuan Town, Zhejiang, China